Scientific Papers

The H2FC Supergen’s hub researchers have produced a wealth of publications. Below you can find a selection of recent papers, sorted by research category.

Alternatively, you can find a list of our latest Hub publications, from 2018-2019 here and 2019-2020 here.






Policy and Socio-Economics

P Agnolucci, O Akgul, W McDowall, and L G Papageorgiou. The importance of economies of scale, transport costs and demand patterns in optimising hydrogen fuelling infrastructure: An exploration with SHIPMod (Spatial hydrogen infrastructure planning model).

G Anandarajah, and W McDowall. ‘Multi-cluster Technology Learning in TIMES: A Transport Sector Case Study with TIAM-UCL’. In Informing Energy and Climate Policies Using Energy Systems Models, edited by G. Giannakidis, et al.: Springer International Publishing (2015).

P Agnolucci, and W McDowall. Designing future hydrogen infrastructure: Insights from analysis at different spatial scales.

G Anandarajah, W McDowall, and P Ekins. Decarbonising road transport with hydrogen and electricity: Long term global technology learning scenarios.

P E Dodds. Integrating housing stock and energy systems models as a strategy to improve heat decarbonisation assessments.

P E Dodds. Economics of hydrogen production. Compendium of Hydrogen Energy: Hydrogen Production and Purification, eds. Subramani, V., Basile, A. and Veziroglu, T. N. Woodhead Publishing, London, UK.

P E Dodds, P Ekins. A portfolio of power-trains for the UK: an energy systems analysis.

P E Dodds. and W McDowall. Methodologies for representing the road transport sector in energy system models.

P E Dodds, et al. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies for heating: a review.

P E Dodds. Optimising energy storage to balance high levels of intermittent renewable generation. IAEE conference, Pittsburgh, USA, October 2015.

P E Dodds, and S Demoullin. Conversion of the UK gas system to transport hydrogen. 

P E Dodds, W McDowall. The future of the UK gas network.

D Hart, J Howes, F Lehner, P E Dodds, N Hughes, B Fais, N Sabio, M Crowther. Scenarios for deployment of hydrogen in contributing to meeting carbon budgets and the 2050 target. Committee on Climate Change, London, UK.

W McDowall. Are scenarios of hydrogen vehicle adoption optimistic? A comparison with historical analogies.

W McDowall. Exploring possible transition pathways for hydrogen energy: A hybrid approach using socio-technical scenarios and energy system modelling.

Hydrogen Safety

Molkov V (2012) Fundamentals of Hydrogen Safety Engineering, free download from, ISBN 978-87-403-0226-4 (Part I), ISBN 978-87-403-0279-0 (Part II).

J.-B. Saffers, V.V. Molkov, Hydrogen safety engineering framework and elementary design safety tools, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 39, Issue 11, 4 April 2014, Pages 6268-6285.

V.V. Molkov, J.-B. Saffers, Hydrogen jet flames, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 38, Issue 19, 27 June 2013, Pages 8141-8158.

Makarov, V. Molkov, Plane hydrogen jets, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 38, Issue 19, 27 June 2013, Pages 8068-8083.

M.V. Bragin, D.V. Makarov, V.V. Molkov, Pressure limit of hydrogen spontaneous ignition in a T-shaped channel, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 38, Issue 19, 27 June 2013, Pages 8039-8052.

Brennan, V. Molkov, Safety assessment of unignited hydrogen discharge from onboard storage in garages with low levels of natural ventilation, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 38, Issue 19, 27 June 2013, Pages 8159-8166.

Molkov, V. Shentsov, J. Quintiere. Passive ventilation of a sustained gaseous release in an enclosure with one vent. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 39, Issue 15, 15 May 2014, Pages 8158-8168.

J.J. Keenan, D.V. Makarov, V.V. Molkov. Rayleigh–Taylor instability: Modelling and effect on coherent deflagrations. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 39, Issue 35, 3 December 2014, Pages 20467-20473.

Molkov, M. Bragin. Hydrogen–air deflagrations: Vent sizing correlation for low-strength equipment and buildings. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 40, Issue 2, 12 January 2015, Pages 1256-1266.

Molkov, S. Kashkarov, Blast wave from a high-pressure gas tank rupture in a fire: stand-alone and under-vehicle hydrogen tanks. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 40, Issue 36, 28 September 2015, Pages 12581-12603.

Kim, Y, Makarov D, Kashkarov S, Joseph P, Molkov V. Modelling heat transfer in an intumescent paint and its effect on fire resistance of on-board hydrogen storage, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 42, Issue 11, 16 March 2017, Pages 7297-7303.

Tretsiakova-McNally, E. Maranne, F. Verbecke, V. Molkov. Mixed e-learning and virtual reality pedagogical approach for innovative hydrogen safety training of first responders. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 42, Issue 11, 16 March 2017, Pages 7504-7512.


Gathered here are notable reports and resources collated from across the hydrogen and fuel cell sector.

Innovation Insights Brief - New Hydrogen Economy - Hype or Hope?

Lead author: World Energy Council

The World Energy Council conducted exploratory interviews with leaders from all around the globe. This report features eight use cases which illustrate hydrogen’s potential. These range from decarbonising hard-to-abate sectors such as heat, industry and transport to supporting the integration of renewables and providing and energy storage solution.

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H2FC SUPERGEN are pleased to launch the UK’S first Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Research Capability Document.

Lead author: World Energy Council

This document aims to share capabilities and skills across the UK’s  hydrogen and fuel cell research landscape.

Nearly 70 UK-based academics have contributed to this document. We hope that academics, industry and government, both in the UK and further afield, find this document useful and that it stimulates further collaboration.

In line with the ethos of H2FC SUPERGEN, we aim for the document to be as inclusive as possible, so if you are a UK-based academic working in the Hydrogen and Fuel Cell field and would like to be included, please contact the H2FC Hub manager at

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The Royal Society Policy Briefing: Options for producing low-carbon hydrogen at scale

Lead author: The Royal Society

Using Hydrogen as an energy carrier has the potential to play a significant role in tackling climate change and poor air quality. This new policy briefing from The Royal Society looks at the existing and emerging technologies used in the production of hydrogen and explores the barriers and opportunities. Technologies such as electrolysis, which separates hydrogen from water using electricity, show exciting potential to produce low-carbon hydrogen at scale and at low cost in the near to mid-term. Can the barriers and costs be driven down to make this a reality?

The paper can be downloaded from the tab below or accessed from The Royal Society Page here!

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The Fuel Cell Industry Review 2016

Lead author: E4 Tech

The fuel cell sector continues to grow. About 30% more fuel cell power was shipped in 2017 than 2016, and nearly 10,000 more units. And while nobody is finding it easy, there seem to be glimmers of light ahead.

Link to Publication

Liverpool-Manchester Hydrogen Clusters project

Lead author: Cadent

Reducing network carbon intensity with hydrogen

The use of hydrogen in place of natural gas could offer a route to widespread decarbonisation of gas distribution networks.

The Liverpool-Manchester Hydrogen Cluster project is a conceptual study to develop a practical and economic framework to introduce hydrogen into the gas network in the Liverpool-Manchester area.

Link to Publication

Energy transition: Measurement needs within the hydrogen industry

The National Physical Laboratory (NPL) has published a report, Energy transition: Measurement needs within the hydrogen industry, which highlights and prioritises the current measurement challenges facing the hydrogen industry. The report emphasises the importance of addressing these challenges should hydrogen play a significant role in a transition to a decarbonised energy system.

Link to Publication

How Hydrogen Empowers the Energy Transition

Lead author: The Hydrogen Council

In this paper we explore the role of hydrogen in the energy transition, including its potential, recent achievements, and challenges to its deployment. We also offer recommendations to ensure that the proper conditions are developed to accelerate the deployment of hydrogen technologies, with the support of policymakers, the private sector, and society.

Link to Publication

H21 Leeds City Gate Report 2016

Lead author:  Northern Gas Networks


The H21 Leeds City Gate project is a study with the aim of determining the feasibility, from both a technical and economic viewpoint, of converting the existing natural gas network in Leeds, one of the largest UK cities, to 100% hydrogen. The project has shown that the gas network has the correct capacity for such a conversion and the existing heat demand for Leeds can be met using technology in use around the world today.

Link to Publication

2050 Energy Scenarios: the UK Gas Network's role in a 2050 whole energy system

Lead author: KPMG


The use of gases such as hydrogen and biogas is technically feasible today. Much of the existing gas infrastructure can be used, thereby limiting the inconvenience of change for gas customers and society overall. The same fuel can supply both heat and transport. But conversion at scale will be logistically challenging, although it was carried out in the 1960s and 1970s.

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Next Steps for UK Heat Policy

Lead author: UK Committee on Climate Change

Government must set out the role of hydrogen for buildings on the gas grid in the next Parliament. The Government will need to make a set of decisions in the next Parliament and beyond on the best strategy for decarbonising buildings on the gas grid. Specifically, it will have to decide on whether there is a role for hydrogen supplied through existing gas networks (extending the useful life of the gas grid infrastructure) alongside other technologies such as heat pumps.

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Installing accessible hydrogen refuelling stations

Lead authors: Element Energy, Innovate UK

installing accessible refuelling stations cover

This guide is aimed at Hydrogen Refuelling Station installers and was developed as part of the Innovate UK-supported London Hydrogen Network Expansion project, through which London’s second publicly accessible HRS was installed in early 2015. While this document focuses on the UK, references to guidance for other markets are also provided. This guide aims to provide recommendations for successfully installing customer-focused hydrogen refuelling stations.

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The Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Annual Review, 2015

Lead author: 4th Energy Wave

fuel cell and hydrogen annual river

This second edition of the 4th Energy Wave Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Annual Review takes an analytical lookat the development of both industries during 2014. Since the data has been gathered from primary interviewing of producers andmanufacturers, the 4th Energy Wave Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Annual Review contains the only nonestimated global dataset in the world.

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Advancing Europe's energy systems: stationary fuel cells in distributed generation

Lead author: Roland Berger Strategy Consultants

advancing Europe energy systems cover

The present study outlines a pathway for commercialising stationary fuel cells in Europe. It produces acomprehensive account of the current and future market potential for fuel cell distributed energy generation in Europe, benchmarks stationary fuel cell technologies against competing conventional technologies in a variety of use cases and assesses potential business models for commercialisation.

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Sectoral scenarios for the Fifth Carbon Budget

Lead author: The Committee on Climate Change


This technical report accompanies the Fifth Carbon Budget – The next step towards a low-carbon economy, the Committee’s published advice on the level of the fifth carbon budget. New infrastructures will be required to support the deployment of low-carbon technologies. As well as CO2 infrastructure, development of heat networks and electric vehicle charging networks will be required, and potentially infrastructure for hydrogen applications.

Link to Publication